Sugar has not been established as a cause of diabetes. Obesity and lack of physical activity are reported to be the major risk factors of Type-2 diabetes.

Type-2 diabetes is characterized either by an inadequate production of the hormone insulin or an inability of the body to utilize the insulin that is available. The body needs insulin to keep blood glucose levels within a narrow range. In most people, when food is consumed, blood glucose levels rise and the body produces insulin to bring them back down. In people with diabetes, this insulin response is defective and, if not treated, blood glucose levels can become dangerously high.